Clean Beauty. Redefined.

At Bristol & Sussex, we employ a team of doctors and biochemists to ensure that the products we make actually work as we say.  That’s why when we formulate our clean, all-natural products we focus on two things:  Safety and Bioavailability.  We use clean, all-natural ingredients because they are both.  

While synthetic chemical based formulae offer a multitude of promises their effectiveness has been called into question in recent years.  The oils we use are intended to help lock in moisture and help give your skin a soft, smooth texture.   The vitamins we add to our products are plant derived and added to each batch to ensure than when you apply the product your body is able to use what’s available.  The only synthetic vitamin we use is SAP to ensure stability and efficacy.   The additives chosen, and their usage level are all based on the research you will find below.  Please note that to protect our formulae (and intellectual property) not all of the studies used to formulate our products are referenced below.

Bioavailability of Bristol & Sussex Products:

Bioavailability refers to the way the product is delivered to the correct cells or structures within the skin undamaged. There’s no point applying an ingredient if it will only travel to the epidermis (top layer) and not penetrate down into the deeper layers of the skin where the changes will become lasting.

Questions we now need to ask when purchasing skin care are less about what percentage of active ingredients are contained within the product or how many times a day can I apply this to get more value from this ingredient.

The focus is now on how does the active ingredient travel where it needs to in the skin, that is without it being destroyed or broken down and becoming ineffective.

Safety and Efficacy References:

Vitamin C:

1. Talakoub L, Neuhaus IM, Yu SS. Cosmeceuticals. In: Alam M, Gladstone HB, Tung RC, editors. Cosmetic dermatology. Vol. 1. Requisites in Dermatology. 1st ed. Gurgaon: Saunders Elsevier; 2009. pp. 13–4.

2. Traikovich SS. Use of Topical Ascorbic acid and its effects on Photo damaged skin topography. Arch Otorhinol Head Neck Surg. 1999;125:1091–8. [PubMed]

3. Farris PK. Cosmetical Vitamins: Vitamin C. In: Draelos ZD, Dover JS, Alam M, editors. Cosmeceuticals. Procedures in Cosmetic Dermatology. 2nd ed. New York: Saunders Elsevier; 2009. pp. 51–6.

4. Wikepedia: [Home Page] Vitamin C: History. [Last Accessed on Aug 11]. Discovery and Sources in Available from: .

5. Matsuda S, Shibayama H, Hisama M, Ohtsuki M, Iwaki M. Inhibitory effects of novel ascorbic derivative VCP-IS-2Na on melanogenesis. Chem Pharm Bull. 2008;56:292–7. [PubMed]

6. Burke KE. Interaction of Vit C and E as better Cosmeseuticals. Dermatol Ther. 2007;20:314–9. [PubMed]

7. Draelos ZD. Skin lightening preparations and the hydroquinone controversy. Dermatol Ther. 2007;20:308–13. [PubMed]

8. Inui S, Itami S. Perifollicular pigment is the first target for Ascorbyl2 phosphate6palmitate. J Dermatol. 2007;34:221–3. [PubMed]

9. Pinnell SR, Yang HS, Omar M, Riviere NM, DeBuys HV, Walker LC. Topical L ascorbic acid percutanous absorbtion studies. Dermatol Surg. 2001;27:137–42. [PubMed]

10. Ito Y, Maeda T, Fukushima K, Sugioka N, Takada K. Permeation enhancement of ascorbic acid by self dissolving micropile array tip through rat skin. Chem Pharma Bull. 2010;58:458–63. [PubMed]

11. Lee S, Lee J, Choi YW. Skin permeation enhancement of Ascorbyl palmitate by lipohydro gel formulation and electrical assistance. Bio Pharma Bull. 2007;30:393–6. [PubMed]

12. Rozman B, Zvonar A, Falson F, Gasperlin M. Temperature sensitive micro emulsion gel: An effective topical delivery system of Vit E, C. AAPS Pharma Sci Tech. 2009;10:54–61. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

13. Yoo J, Shanmugam S, Song CK, Kim DD, Choi HG, Yong CS, et al. Skin penetration and retension of LAA2PO4 using multilamellar vesicles. Arch Pharma Res. 2008;31:1652–8. [PubMed]

14. Ebihara M, Akiyama M, Ohnishi Y, Tajima S, Komata K, Mitsui Y. Iontophoresis promotes percutaneous absorbtion of Lascorbic acid in rat skin. J Dermat Sci. 2003;32:217–22. [PubMed]

15. Zhang L, Lerner S, Rustrum WV, Hofmann GA. Electroporation mediated topical delivery of Vit C for cometic applications. Bioelectrochem Bioenerg. 1999;48:453–61. [PubMed]

16. Lee RW, Shen CS, Wang KH, Hu CH, Fang JY. Lasers and microdermabrasion enhance and control topical delivery of Vit C. J Invest Dermat. 2003;121:1118–25. [PubMed]

Vitamin B3 (Niacinamide):

Int J Cosmet Sci. 2004 Oct;26(5):231-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-2494.2004.00228.x.

Vitamin B5:

1. Goulden V, Stables GI, Cunliffe WJ. Prevalence of facial acne in adults. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1999;41(4):577–580. [PubMed]

2. Ingram JR, Grindlay DJ, Williams HC. Management of acne vulgaris: an evidence-based update. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2010;35(4):351–354. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2230.2009.03683.x. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

3. Knutsen-Larson S, Dawson AL, Dunnick CA, Dellavalle RP. Acne vulgaris: pathogenesis, treatment, and needs assessment. Dermatol Clin. 2012;30(1):99–106. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2011.09.001. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

4. Williams HC, Dellavalle RP, Garner S. Acne vulgaris. Lancet. 2012;379(9813):361–372. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60321-8. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

5. Magin PJ, Adams J, Heading GS, Pond DC, Smith W. Complementary and alternative medicine therapies in acne, psoriasis, and atopic eczema: results of a qualitative study of patients’ experiences and perceptions. J Altern Complement Med. 2006;12(5):451–457. doi: 10.1089/acm.2006.12.451. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

6. El-Akawi Z, Abdel-Latif N, Abdul-Razzak K. Does the plasma level of vitamins A and E affect acne condition? Clin Exp Dermatol. 2006;31(3):430. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2230.2006.02106.x. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

7. Kelly GS. Pantothenic acid. Monograph. Altern Med Rev. 2011;16(3):263–274. [PubMed]

8. Leung LH. Pantothenic acid deficiency as the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Med Hypotheses. 1995;44(6):490–492. doi: 10.1016/0306-9877(95)90512-X. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

9. Kobayashi D, Kusama M, Onda M, Nakahata N. The effect of pantothenic acid deficiency on keratinocyte proliferation and the synthesis of keratinocyte growth factor and collagen in fibroblasts. J Pharmacol Sci. 2011;115(2):230–234. doi: 10.1254/jphs.10224SC. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

10. Jerajani HR, Mizoguchi H, Li J, Whittenbarger DJ, Marmor MJ. The effects of a daily facial lotion containing vitamins B3 and E and provitamin B5 on the facial skin of Indian women: a randomized, double-blind trial. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2010;76(1):20–26. doi: 10.4103/0378-6323.58674. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

11. Camargo FB, Jr, Gaspar LR, Maia Campos PM. Skin moisturizing effects of panthenol-based formulations. J Cosmet Sci. 2011;62(4):361–370. [PubMed]

12. Capodice JL. Feasibility, tolerability, safety and efficacy of a pantothenic acid based dietary supplement in subjects with mild to moderate facial acne blemishes. J Cosmet Dermatol Sci Appl. 2012;2:132–135.

13. Finlay AY, Khan GK. Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI)—a simple practical measure for routine clinical use. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1994;19(3):210–216. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2230.1994.tb01167.x. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

14. Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program, Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, Version 3.0, DCTD, NCI, NIH, DHHS; 2003. Last accessed April 17, 2014.

15. Gaisa NT, Köster J, Reinartz A, Ertmer K, Ehling J, Raupach K, Perez-Bouza A, Knüchel R, Gassler N. Expression of acyl-CoA synthetase 5 in human epidermis. Histol Histopathol. 2008;23(4):451–458. [PubMed]

16. Nitto T, Onodera K. The linkage between coenzyme a metabolism and inflammation: roles of pantetheinase. J Pharmacol Sci. 2013;123(1):1–8. doi: 10.1254/jphs.13R01CP. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

17. Eissenstat BR, Wyse BW, Hansen RG. Pantothenic acid status of adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr. 1986;44(6):931–937. [PubMed]

18. Dreher ML, Davenport AJ. Hass avocado composition and potential health effects. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2013;53(7):738–750. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2011.556759. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

19. Barnes LE, Levender MM, Fleischer AB, Jr, Feldman SR. Quality of life measures for acne patients. Dermatol Clin. 2012;30(2):293–300. doi: 10.1016/j.det.2011.11.001. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

20. Gollnick HP, Finlay AY, Shear N. Global Alliance to Improve Outcomes in Acne. Can we define acne as a chronic disease? If so, how and when? Am J Clin Dermatol. 2008;9(5):279–284. doi: 10.2165/00128071-200809050-00001. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]

Vitamin E:

1. Evans HM, Emerson OH, Emerson GA. The isolation from wheat germ oil of an alcohol, alphatocopherol, having the properties of vitamin E. J Biol Chem. 1936;113:319–32.

2. Fernholz E. On the constitution of α-tocopherol. J Am Chem Soc. 1938;60:700–5.

3. Bunnel RH, Keating J, Quaresimo A, Parman GK. Alpha-tocopherol content of foods. Am J Clin Nutr. 1965;17:1–10. [PubMed]

4. Jiang Q, Christen S, Shigenaga MK, Ames BN. Gamma-tocopherol, the major form of vitamin E in the US diet, deserves more attention. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74:714–22. [PubMed]

5. Yoshida E, Watanabe T, Takata J, Yamazaki A, Karube Y, Kobayashi S. Topical application of a novel, hydrophilic gamma-tocopherol derivative reduces photo- inflammation in mice skin. J Invest Dermatol. 2006;126:1633–40. [PubMed]

6. Beharka AA, Wu D, Serafini M, Meydani SN. Mechanism of vitamin E inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity in macrophages from old mice: Role of peroxynitrite. Free Radic Biol Med. 2002;32:503–11. [PubMed]

7. Thiele JJ, Hsieh SN, Ekanayake-Mudiyanselage S. Vitamin E: Critical review of its current use in cosmetic and clinical dermatology. Dermatol Surg. 2005;31:805–13. [PubMed]

8. Thiele JJ, Ekanayake-Mudiyanselage S. Vitamin E in human skin: Organ-specific physiology and consideration for its use in dermatology. Mol Aspects Med. 2007;28:646–67. [PubMed]

9. Burke KE, Clive J, Combs GF, Jr, Commissoo J, Keen CL, Nakamura RM. Effects of topical and oral vitamin E on pigmentation and skin cancer induced by ultraviolet irradiation in Skh: 2 hairless mice. Nutr Cancer. 2000;38:87–97. [PubMed]

10. Lin FH, Lin JY, Gupta RD, Tournas JA, Burch JA, Selim MA, et al. Ferulic acid stabilizes a solution of vitamins C and E and doubles its photoprotection of skin. J Invest Dermatol. 2005;125:826–32. [PubMed]

11. Ayres S, Jr, Mihan R. Yellow nail syndrome: Response to vitamin E. Arch Dermatol. 1973;108:267–8. [PubMed]

12. Norton L. Further observations on the yellow nail syndrome with therapeutic effect of oral alpha-tocopherol. Cutis. 1985;36:457–62. [PubMed]

13. Al Hawsawi K, Pope E. Yellow nail syndrome. Pediatr Dermatol. 2010;27:675–6. [PubMed]

14. Prussick R, Ali MA, Rosenthal D, Guyatt G. The protective effect of vitamin E on the hemolysis associated with dapsone treatment in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis. Arch Dermatol. 1992;128:210–3. [PubMed]

15. Kelly JW, Scott J, Sandland M, Van der Weyden MB, Marks R. Vitamin E and dapsone-induced hemolysis. Arch Dermatol. 1984;120:1582–4. [PubMed]

16. Cox NH. Vitamin E for dapsone-induced headache. Br J Dermatol. 2002;146:174. [PubMed]

17. Ayres S, Jr, Mihan R. Letter: Subcorneal pustular dermatoses controlled by vitamin E. Arch Dermatol. 1974;109:914. [PubMed]

18. Terao M, Nishida K, Murota H, Katayama I. Clinical effect of tocoretinate on lichen and macular amyloidosis. J Dermatol. 2011;38:179–84. [PubMed]

19. Tsoureli-Nikita E, Hercogova J, Lotti T, Menchini G. Evaluation of dietary intake of vitamin E in the treatment of atopic dermatitis: A study of the clinical course and evaluation of the immunoglobulin E serum levels. Int J Dermatol. 2002;41:146–50. [PubMed]

20. Ayres S., Jr Hailey-Hailey disease: Response to vitamin E therapy. Arch Dermatol. 1983;119:450. [PubMed]

21. Ayres S, Jr, Mihan R. Is Vitamin E involved in the autoimmune mechanism? Cutis. 1978;21:321–5. [PubMed]

22. Sehgal VN, Vadiraj SN, Rege VL, Beohar PC. Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa in a family: Response to vitamin E (tocopherol) Dermatologica. 1972;144:27–34. [PubMed]

23. Ayres S., Jr Epidermolysis bullosa controlled by vitamin E. Int J Dermatol. 1986;25:670–1. [PubMed]

24. Sehgal VN, Sanyal RK. Vitamin E therapy in dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. Arch Dermatol. 1972;105:460. [PubMed]

25. Seyger MM, van de Kerkhof PC, van Vlijmen-Willems IM, de Bakker ES, Zwiers F, de Jong EM. The efficacy of a new topical treatment for psoriasis: Mirak. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 1998;11:13–8. [PubMed]

26. Hauch JT. A new treatment for resistant pressure sores. Can Med Assoc J. 1957;77:125–8. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

27. Gerrish KE, Gensler HL. Prevention of photocarcinogenesis by dietary vitamin E. Nutr Cancer. 1993;19:125–33. [PubMed]

28. van der Pols JC, Heinen MM, Hughes MC, Ibiebele TI, Marks GC, Green AC. Serum antioxidants and skin cancer risk: An 8-year community-based follow-up study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18:1167–73. [PubMed]

29. McNaughton SA, Marks GC, Green AC. Role of dietary factors in the development of basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer of the skin. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14:1596–607. [PubMed]

30. Ellinger S, Stehle P. Efficacy of vitamin supplementation insituations with wound healing disorders: Results from clinical intervention studies. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2009;12:588–95. [PubMed]

31. Barbosa E, Faintuch J, Machado Moreira EA, Gonçalves da Silva VR, Lopes Pereima MJ, Martins Fagundes RL, et al. Supplementation of vitamin E, vitamin C, and zinc attenuates oxidative stress in burned children: A randomized, double- blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. J Burn Care Res. 2009;30:859–66. [PubMed]

32. Hayakawa R, Ueda H, Nozaki T, Izawa Y, Yokotake J, Yazaki K, et al. Effect of combination treatments with vitamin E and C on chloasma and pigmented contact dermatitis: A double blind controlled clinical trial. Acta Vitaminol Enzymol. 1981;3:31–8. [PubMed]

33. Badreshia-Bansal S, Draelos ZD. Insight into skin lightening cosmeceuticals for women of color. J Drugs Dermatol. 2007;6:32–9. [PubMed]

34. Handog EB, Galang DA, de Leon-Godinez MA, Chan GP. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral procyanidin with vitamins A, C, E for melasma among Filipino women. Int J Dermatol. 2009;48:896–901. [PubMed]

35. Ni Z, Mu Y, Gulati O. Treatment of melasma with Pycnogenol. Phytother Res. 2002;16:567–71. [PubMed]

36. Shimizu K, Kondo R, Sakai K, Takeda N, Nagahata T, Oniki T. Novel vitamin E derivative with 4-substituited resorcinol moiety has both antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory properties. Lipids. 2001;36:1321–6. [PubMed]

37. Ichihashi M, Funasaka Y, Ohashi A, Chakraborty A, Ahmed NU, Ueda M, et al. The inhibitory effect of DL-alpha-tocopheryl ferulate in lecithin on melanogenesis. Anticancer Res. 1999;19:3769–74. [PubMed]

38. Marmol VD, Solano F, Sels A, Huez G, Libert A, Lejeune F, et al. Glutathione depletion increases tyrosinase activity in human melanoma cells. J Invest Dermatol. 1993;101:871–4. [PubMed]

39. Ayres S, Jr, Mihan R. Acne vulgaris: Therapy directed at pathophysiologic defects. Cutis. 1981;28:41–2. [PubMed]

40. Strauss JS, Gottlieb AB, Jones T, Koo JY, Leyden JJ, Lucky A, et al. Concomitant administration of vitamin E does not change the side effects of isotretinoin as used in acne vulgaris: A randomized trial. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;43:777–84. [PubMed]

41. Kus S, Gün D, Demirçay Z, Sur H. Vitamin E does not reduce the side-effects of isotretinoin in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Int J Dermatol. 2005;44:248–51. [PubMed]

42. Stein CM, Tanner SB, Awad JA, Roberts LJ, 2nd, Morrow JD. Evidence of free radical-mediated injury (isoprostane overproduction) in scleroderma. Arthritis Rheum. 1996;39:1146–50. [PubMed]

43. Ayres S, Jr, Mihan R. Vitamin E and dermatology. Cutis. 1975;16:1017–21.

44. Ayres S, Jr, Mihan R, Levan NE. Raynaud's phenomenon, scleroderma and calcinosis cutis: Response to vitamin E. Cutis. 1973;11:54–62.

45. Ayres S, Jr, Mihan R. Lupus erythematosus and vitamin E: An effective and nontoxic therapy. Cutis. 1979;23:49–52. 54. [PubMed]

46. Ayres S, Jr, Mihan R, Levan NE. Raynaud's phenomenon and possibly early scleroderma-response to vitamin E. Arch Dermatol. 1971;104:570–1.

47. Ayres S, Jr, Mihan R. Keratosis follicularis. (Darier's disease). Response to simultaneous administration of vitamins A and E. Arch Derm. 1972;106:909–10. [PubMed]

48. Ayres S, Jr, Mihan R. Letter: Post-herpes zoster neuralgia: Response to vitamin E therapy. Arch Dermatol. 1973;108:855–6. [PubMed]

49. Ayres S, Jr, Mihan R. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum and epidermolysis bullosa: Response to vitamin E (tocopherol) Cutis. 1969;5:287–94.

50. Ayres S, Jr, Mihan R. Porphyria cutanea tarda: Response to vitamin E.A review and two case reports. Cutis. 1978;22:50–2. [PubMed]

51. Vitamin E. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 1975;17:69–70. [PubMed]

52. Horwitt MK. Status of human requirements for vitamin E. Am J Clin Nutr. 1974;27:1182–93. [PubMed]

53. Tanaka H, Okada T, Konishi H, Tsuji T. The effects of reactive oxygen species on the biosynthesis of collagen and glycosaminoglycans in cultured human dermal fibroblasts. Arch Dermatol Res. 1993;285:352–5. [PubMed]

54. Ashamalla L, Maurice M, Sidhom K. Topical vitamin E in granuloma annulare. Int J Dermatol. 1988;27:348. [PubMed]

55. Chiu A, Kimball AB. Topical vitamins, minerals and botanical ingredients as modulators of environmental and chronological skin damage. Br J Dermatol. 2003;149:681–91. [PubMed]

56. Baumann LS, Spencer J. The effects of topical vitamin E on the cosmetic appearance of scars. Dermatol Surg. 1999;25:311–5. [PubMed]

57. Jenkins M, Alexander JW, MacMillan BG, Waymack JP, Kopcha R. Failure of topical steroids and vitamin E to reduce postoperative scar formation following reconstructive surgery. J Burn Care Rehabil. 1986;7:309–12. [PubMed]

58. Mitsuishi T, Shimoda T, Mitsui Y, Kuriyama Y, Kawana S. The effects of topical application of phytonadione, retinol and vitamins C and E on infraorbital dark circles and wrinkles of the lower eyelids. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2004;3:73–5. [PubMed]

59. Brigelius-Flohé R, Kelly FJ, Salonen JT, Neuzil J, Zingg JM, Azzi A. The European perspective on vitamin E: Current knowledge and future research. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76:703–16. [PubMed]

60. Toxic effects of vitamin overdosage. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 1984;26:73–4. [PubMed]

61. Goldman MP, Rapaport M. Contact dermatitis to vitamin E oil. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1986;14:133–4. [PubMed]

62. Saperstein H, Rapaport M, Rietschel RL. Topical vitamin E as a cause of erythema multiforme-like eruption. Arch Dermatol. 1984;120:906–8. [PubMed]

63. Parsad D, Saini R, Verma N. Xanthomatous reaction following contact dermatitis from vitamin E. Contact Dermatitis. 1997;37:294. [PubMed]

Hyaluronic Acid:


Sulfur is anti bacterial and antifungal:

MSM anti oxident:

MSM Reactive Oxygen Species:,f1000m,isrctn

MSM Rosacea skin whitrening:  Sulfur Amino Acids—Advances in Research and Application: 2013 Edition Chappter 2, Page 62

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database: "Consumer Information and Education: MSM (Methylsulfonylmethane)."

National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine: "Osteoarthritis and Complementary Health Approaches."

Gregory, P. American Family Physician, Jan. 15, 2008; vol 77: pp 177-184.

Kalman, D. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, Sept. 27, 2012; vol 9: p 46.

Debbi, E. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, June 27, 2011; vol 11: p 50.

Lim, E. PLoS One. April 2, 2012; vol 7: p e33361.

Ameye, L. Arthritis Research and Therapy, July 19, 2006; vol 8: R127.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database: "MSM (Methylsulfonylmethane)."


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This list is expanded and updated constantly so check back for more nerdy stuff!